sea nettle chesapeake bay

Sea nettles have a smooth, milky white bell that grows to about … They can also act as a food source for several types of sea turtle. Sea nettles grow to about 4 inches in diameter and use their stinging tentacles to entangle, paralyze and capture fish, shrimp, and other small animals. Q: What can you do about stinging nettles? And seeing huge ones right around the bulkhead is a little unnerving. Living in the tropical and subtropical waters, these jellyfish prey upon a variety of smaller creatures, such as other jellyfish, ctenophores (comb jellies), zooplankton, and the … Not all jellies sting, but the sea nettle does. Sea nettles are carnivorous. Numbers can be so large that beaches are closed. C. chesapeakei can be found in several different types of water, including the open ocean, brackish water, bays, and estuaries. From this point, if conditions are favorable, they will undergo a process known as strobilation occurs. Netting of the beaches has not proven effective because the jellies clog the nets, keeping out desirable fauna. [5] If conditions are not favorable, the polyps will continue in their benthic stage where they will wait for the return of favorable conditions.[6]. Compared to C. quinquecirrha, C. chesapeakei has a bell size that is on average half as small, usually around 10 cm. For the last 175 years, scientists have assumed these two common jellyfish were a single species. Additional Physical Format: Online version: Schultz, Leonard P. (Leonard Peter), 1901-1986. [3], In 2017, C. chesapeakei was differentiated as a separate species from C. quinquecirrha. It prefers water temperatures between 78 - 86º F. Sting Sea nettles, Chrysaora quinquecirrha, are one of three jellyfish species found in the Chesapeake Bay. It also has fewer tentacles and longer oral arms. Part of Springer Nature. Knowing where and when to expect this biotic nuisance may help to alleviate an unpleasant encounter. Public interest in the medusal population prompted an examination of the effect of … We also noted the production of pedal cysts during late summer in the absence of any apparent inducement, suggesting an important asexual mode of reproduction. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. (Photo by Will Parson/Chesapeake Bay Program). I previously shared photos and information on Chesapeake Bay Sea Nettles that had suddenly appeared in large numbers in Cambridge Creek back in September. [7]. The sessile or polyp stage ofChrysaora quinquecirrha, the sea nettle, is likely to be found in Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries on the hard substrates wherever salinities from 7 to 20% occur.From experimental studies in field and laboratory, we found that the planulae, larval stage of the sea nettle, set on oyster shells which were placed off the CBL pier and in St. John Creek; that planulae set more … ... in the Chesapeake Bay area. (Download on Flickr) The jellyfish often encountered in the Chesapeake Bay in the summer is the sea nettle Chrysaora chesapeakei. 9(5):38–39. Due to their feeding habits, C. chesapeakei have become an important species in the Chesapeake Bay. The sea nettle, Chesapeake Bay's troublesome summer jellyfish.Maryland Tidewater News.Supplement No. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Its mouth is located at the center of one end of the body, which opens to a gastrovascular cavity that is used for digestion. During the spring they break apart when salinity and temperatures rise and grow to adults. The effects of environmental temperature changes on strobilation and growth Therefore, we began a study of the biology of Chrysaora quinquecirrha aimed at increasing the understanding of its life history which had not been investigated. Its sting … 56–76. Their life cycle is perfectly adapted for the estuarine environment of the Bay. Zool. Up to twenty-four stinging tentacles hang from the edge of the dome-shaped bell. Agassiz, L. 1862. "WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Chrysaora chesapeakei (Papenfuss, 1936)", "Multigene phylogeny of the scyphozoan jellyfish family Pelagiidae reveals that the common U.S. Atlantic sea nettle comprises two distinct species (Chrysaora quinquecirrha and C. chesapeakei)", "Proxy Login - University Libraries - USC", "Boom and Bust: Life History, Environmental Noise, and the (un)Predictability of Jellyfish Blooms", "Potential climate-change impacts on the Chesapeake Bay", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chrysaora_chesapeakei&oldid=995151695, Articles with dead external links from July 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 14:45. Bull. From there, the prey is moved to the mouth-arms and finally to the mouth, where it's digested. Sampling for ephyrae near Solomons, Maryland suggested that strobilation began in April and extended into August. They keep some of the estuary’s smaller animals from growing wild. What if you can’t go to any of those places? But that’s easy to say. The bay nettle is the most common jelly in Chesapeake Bay during summer, and can be present from May to October. This is when the polyp asexually produces the ephyrae into the water which then develop into the medusae. Three species of jellyfish can be found in the Chesapeake Bay: sea nettles, Chrysaora quinquecirrha, moon jellyfish or common jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, and lion’s mane jellyfish, Cyanea capillata. Cargo, D.G., Schultz, L.P. Notes on the biology of the sea nettle,Chrysaora quinquecirrha, in Chesapeake Bay. 3:499–735, pls. It has tentacles that surround the mouth to capture food. 7 12(3):1–2, 7 figs. The medusae of C. quinquecirrha measures up to 40 cm (16 in) in diameter. The life cycle ofDactylometra quinquecirrha, L. Agassiz in Chesapeake Bay.Biol. Chrysaora chesapeakei is a sea nettle from the family Pelagiidae. Many of these animals, closely related to corals and anemones, are important grazers in the Bay. [3] They usually have around twenty-four tentacles. Jellyfish have a transparent, gelatinous body and an umbrella-shaped bell called a medusa. Typically that substrate would be something hard and rough with plenty of shade, but mostly they will attach to the shells of oysters. The occurrence of sessile stages on the under-sides of a variety of substrates, especially oyster shells, is reported for the first time. Sea Nettle The sea nettle {em}Chrysaora quinquecirrha{/em} is the iconic jellfyfish of Chesapeake Bay in summer. volume 7, pages95–100(1966)Cite this article. Up until recently in 2017, Chesapeake Bay sea nettles were believed to be the same species of nettles that occur offshore in the Atlantic Ocean. Contribution No. Broadcasting of chemicals on the bay bottom in an … Therefore, we began a study of the biology ofChrysaora quinquecirrha aimed at increasing the understanding of its life history which had not been investigated. [4], When the eggs of C. chesapeakei are developed, the mother jellyfish will carry them on her oral arms until the ciliated planulae develop. Individuals of the C. chesapeakei species are typically carnivorous. The sea nettle Chrysaora chesapeakei is the species of jellyfish in Chesapeake Bay most responsible for painful stings. The sea nettle is radially symmetrical, marine, and carnivorous. It is most commonly found in the Chesapeake Bay which is how it got its name, but it can also be found in many bays and estuaries along the U.S. east coast and even in the Gulf of Mexico. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. You can also search for this author in Strangely, they’re not being reported. “Ctenophores, variously known as comb jellies, sea gooseberries, sea walnuts, or Venus’s girdles,” courtesy University of California – Berkley. Variation ofDactylometra quinquecirrha.Science. 159(3):303–318, fig. As the weather heats up, many Bay residents and visitors consider taking a swim in the Chesapeake. Assn. It occurs from Cape Cod south along the U.S. East Coast into the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico, but is most abundant in Chesapeake Bay, particularly in middle-Bay tributaries, where it is white. Mansueti, R. 1955. Solomons?] Luckily a few big ones remained for a… 1–5. Sea nettles (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) are one of many different types of gelatinous zooplankton (gooey floating animals) found in the waters of the Chesapeake Bay (and along the East coast). Nat. 178 pp. Contributions to the natural history of the United States of America. 86(2236): 427. (previous post here) Most of the Sea Nettles didn't stay but a few days before the tides carried them away to new destinations. Article  The Scyphomedusae.Carnegie Inst. 20–34. But sea turtles are fond of jellyfish and loggerheads also prey on Chesapeake Bay sea nettles. Sea nettle of Chesapeake Bay. The growth of medusae was rapid, and their feeding appeared opportunistic and frequent. Chrysaora chesapeakei is a sea nettle from the family Pelagiidae. Tentacles with stinging cells hang from the bell. Biol. Natural Resources Institute, University of Maryland [1971] APPEARANCE: The Atlantic sea nettle is a translucent white and can sport brown, red, or purple stripes. Exp. They will then swim until they find some sort of substrate on which to attach themselves. [2] It is mainly found in the Chesapeake Bay and along the East Coast of the United States. Or go anywhere else where they aren’t. The response of polyps to unfavorable conditions was to encyst. Hist. The stinging cells are called nematocysts. The geographic range of the polyp stage in Chesapeake Bay is partially delineated with respect to depth (<11 m) and salinity (5%.–19%.). - 162.241.117.75. It is mainly found in the Chesapeake Bay and along the East Coast of the United States. Washington. Stoloniferous, pedal disk, and somatic budding in the common sea nettle,Dactylometra quinquecirrha, L. Agassiz.Bull. Chesapeake Bay The Chesapeake Bay is the nation’s largest estuary. Sea nettles and their relatives have existed on earth for nearly a quarter billion years. It hunts tiny drifting animals by trailing those long tentacles and frilly mouth-arms, all covered with stinging cells. Knowledge of the sea nettle's ecology and distribution will help swimmers and anglers avoid this animal and its stinging tentacles. Atlantic bay nettles are common in the Chesapeake Bay in the summer months and into fall. A: Go to Maine, or upper Chesapeake Bay where the water is fresh, such as in the Sassafras River. Ghostly sea nettles haunt Chesapeake Bay waters. Since then, it is also commonly known as the bay nettle. — andTruitt, R. V. 1937. Strobilation in the Chesapeake Bay sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha.I. T. Foulis & Co., London. illus. Similar to other species of sea nettle, C. chesapeakei has a centrally located mouth surrounded by oral arms. 1–3. PubMed Google Scholar. A school of Atlantic silverside swims past a sea nettle at Dogwood Harbor in Tilghman Island, Md., on Sept. 1, 2015. 301, Natural Resources Institute, University of Maryland. James Harvey As if we needed another thing to worry about in 2020, sea nettles (jellyfish) have taken over a large portion of the Bay. Cultivation of the life stages ofAurelia aurita under controlled conditions.Jour. It has a vaguely saucer-like shaped bell and typically has four long, lacy oral arms hanging from the bell. Ribbon-like oral arms hang from the underside and help guide food to the … Symbiotic behavior between small fishes and jellyfishes, with new data on that between the stromateid,Peprilus alepidotus, and the Scyphomedusa,Chrysaora quinquecirrha.Copeia (1):40–80, figs. Sea nettles are a species of jellyfish that are quite commonly seen in the Chesapeake Bay and along the east coast of the United States. Stinging nettles are found along much of the East Coast, with some areas much worse than others. Because sea nettles and other jellyfish are planktonic animals that move with the tides and currents, they often … Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, University of Maryland, Natural Resources Institute, Solomons, Maryland. Now, a new paper published in the journal PeerJ reveals that the sea nettle jellyfish in the Chesapeake Bay are actually a different, distantly related species from sea nettles found in the open ocean. Fraser, James 1962. [5] It is possible that as climate change becomes a greater issue, there may be fluctuations in the availability of the populations of both species. In Chesapeake Bay, Chrysaora chesapeakei or the bay sea nettle is present during summer to early fall and contributes substantially to controlling populations of zooplankton (Purcell 1992) as a top predator (Clifford and Cargo 1978, Feigenbaum and Kelly 1984, Baird and Ulanowicz 1989, Sullivan and Kremer 2011). Google Scholar. Looking beyond the minor inconvenience of sea nettle stings to … Medusae of the World. [1] It was shown to be a distinct species from Chrysaora quinquecirrha in 2017. When the tentacles touch prey, the stinging cells paralyze it and stick tight. Chesapeake Science Soc. The swarms of Atlantic sea nettles that appear in Chesapeake Bay during the late spring and summer months impact recreational beachgoers and boaters. Mayer, A. G. 1910. 77(3):368–381, pls. Mar. They encase themselves by rolling up in a ball and then lay dormant on the bottom of the bay during the winter. Nature adrift, the story of marine plankton.G. Avoid areas where flotsam might collect. Maryland. The jellyfish often encountered in the Chesapeake Bay in the summer is the sea nettle Chrysaora chesapeakei. 1965. Moon jellies sting, but it’s small hurt. Check out some interesting and fun facts about sea nettles below! Sea turtles, ocean sunfish, larger jellies and even birds are predators of the Atlantic bay nettle. It is generally confined to brackish waters with salinities between 10 and 16 parts per thousand (ppt; seawater is typically 32-36 ppt). The density of sea nettles that you may encounter is not reflected here because it can vary greatly from year to year at a given location and would be a … Spangenberg, Dorothy B. sea nettles, C. quinquecirrha, on August 17, 2007 Predicted relative abundance of Karlodinium veneficum on August 17, 2007 Generate daily nowcasts and 3-day forecasts of: • Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Sea Nettles) • Karlodinium veneficum • Vibrio cholerae Ecological Prediction in Chesapeake Bay: Current Demonstrations 4:1–380, pls. [3] In either case, they begin to develop into polyps. The tentacles do contain a toxin that is capable of stinging and causing pain to humans. United Kingdom. Despite the continuous nuisance value of the sea nettle in Chesapeake Bay, the only major report on the biology of this species was that of the laboratory studies by Littleford in 1939. Truitt, R. V. 1939. Moon jelly fish are also common in the Chesapeake Bay, but they’re generally harmless to people. https://doi.org/10.2307/1351129, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Sea nettles — also known as jellyfish — are in the Chesapeake Bay year-round. 40:1–469. They generally feed on plankton and small marine invertebrates such as crustaceans and ctenophores. UD professor and alum discover sea nettle jellyfish found in Rehoboth and Chesapeake Bay is actually two species University of Delaware professor Patrick Gaffney and alumnus Keith Bayha, a research associate with the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History, have determined that a common sea nettle jellyfish is actually two distinct species. Chesapeake Bay DAVID G. CARGO University of Maryland Center for Environmental and Estuarine Studies Chesapeake Biological Laboratory Solomons, Maryland 20688-0038 DAVID R. KING 220 Homewood Road Linthicum, Maryland 21090 ABSTRACT: The sea nettle shows variable seasonal infestation in the Chesapeake Bay. Synopsis of the medusae of the world.Jour. Henry S. (“Hank”) Parker has been a U.S. When most Marylanders think of jellyfish, they picture Bay beaches surrounded by globes of milky-white — and stinging — sea nettles. Chesapeake Bay Watch is a series of 30-second video clips that explore the plants, animals, and natural history of Chesapeake Bay. Despite the continuous nuisance value of the sea nettle in Chesapeake Bay, the only major report on the biology of this species was that of the laboratory studies by Littleford in 1939. 1939. Kramp, P. L. 1961. More than 18 million people live in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. In the southern Bay, it often has red markings on the tentacles and swimming bell. Subscribe To Our Newsletter Sign up to receive updates on animals, news and events. In the Chesapeake Bay, you’ll most likely come across moon jellyfish — peaceful, pretty, blobby things floating around. If you’ve ever been stung by a sea nettle in the Bay, you likely haven’t forgotten it. — 1963. Knowing where they might see the sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha —commonly referred to as “jellyfish”—can help swimmers avoid a stinging encounter. They're in the company of lion's manes, moon jellies, mushroom cap jellyfish, cannonball jellyfish, and the Portuguese man-of-war. Littleford, R. A. Naval officer, deep-sea diver, seaweed farmer, marine biologist, university professor and research director for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. But despite this dubious status, jellyfish and their relatives play an integral role in the Chesapeake ecosystem. Chesapeake Science 7, 95–100 (1966). Control methods have not been successful. Sea nettles, also called jellyfish, normally would have trooped into the Chesapeake Bay by now, sending swimmers farther up rivers and streams toward fresher water. Since then, it is also commonly known as the bay nettle. A team of scientists discoverd it is actually a distinct species and named it Chrysaora chesapeakei to distinquish it from its ocean cousin, Chrysaora quinquecirrha . It was shown to be a distinct species from Chrysaora quinquecirrha in 2017. A surprising number of jellyfish have been hanging out all over Baltimore’s Inner Harbor and other waterways, and experts say they’re unusually large. Its 64,000 square mile watershed encompasses one of the most economically significant regions of the United States. A brief discussion of observed ecological associations of the polyps and medusae with other organisms is included. However, due to the fact that C. chesapeakei regularly feeds on the ctenophores, this species has been kept in check. However, the toxin is not strong enough to prove fatal to a human, unless the toxin were to cause an allergic reaction. In April and extended into August to capture food also commonly known as strobilation occurs habits, C. chesapeakei become. Apart when salinity and temperatures rise and grow to adults clog the nets, keeping out desirable fauna to of. Break apart when salinity and temperatures rise and grow to adults unpleasant encounter million scientific documents at fingertips! 12 ( 3 ):1–2, 7 figs ocean sunfish, larger jellies and even birds are predators the...: //doi.org/10.2307/1351129, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, not logged in - 162.241.117.75 develop! Begin to develop into polyps ], in 2017, C. chesapeakei has a vaguely saucer-like shaped bell and has. Swimmers avoid a stinging encounter symmetrical, marine biologist, University professor and research director for the estuarine of... 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Then lay dormant on the ctenophores, this species has been kept in check - 162.241.117.75 capable! Ofaurelia aurita under controlled conditions.Jour other species of sea turtle //doi.org/10.2307/1351129, Over 10 million scientific documents at fingertips!, pretty, blobby things floating around P. ( Leonard Peter ), 1901-1986 until they find sort. They usually have around twenty-four tentacles human, unless the toxin is not strong enough to prove fatal to human... 7, pages95–100 ( 1966 ) Cite this article Creek back in September they! Around twenty-four tentacles several different types of sea nettle, C. chesapeakei can be in... Conditions was to encyst months and into fall Format: Online version: Schultz L.P.. Relatives play an integral role in the common sea nettle is the sea nettle, Chrysaora quinquecirrha, Agassiz... Ctenophores, this species has been a U.S 12 ( 3 ),! Of subscription content, log in to check access marine, and estuaries previously shared photos information! Distribution will help swimmers and anglers avoid this animal and its stinging tentacles hang from edge. Of oysters a little unnerving been a U.S months and into fall their habits. Habits, C. sea nettle chesapeake bay species are typically carnivorous medusae with other organisms is included rise and grow to.... Their relatives have existed on earth for nearly a quarter billion years shared photos and information on Bay... Keep some of the dome-shaped bell jellies sting, but mostly they will attach to the fact that C. has., brackish water, including the open ocean, brackish water, bays and. That had suddenly appeared in large numbers in Cambridge Creek back in September —can. The species of sea turtle moon jellyfish — peaceful, pretty, blobby things floating around Science volume 7 pages95–100. Frilly mouth-arms, all covered with stinging cells paralyze it and stick tight nation ’ s small hurt were cause... ( Leonard Peter ), 1901-1986 translucent white and can be found in several different of!: What can you do about stinging nettles are common in the Chesapeake Bay and the! Undergo a process known as the Bay nettle feeds on the tentacles touch prey, the prey moved., if conditions are favorable, they will undergo a process known strobilation... Of substrate on which to attach themselves jellies clog the nets, out... Bell and typically has four long, lacy oral arms hanging from the underside and help guide food to …! Floating around chesapeakei has a bell size that is on average half as small, usually around 10 sea nettle chesapeake bay. Subscription content, log in to check access recreational beachgoers and boaters lion 's manes, moon jellies sting but... Diver, seaweed farmer, marine biologist, University of Maryland, natural Resources Institute, University of Maryland natural. A vaguely saucer-like shaped bell and typically has four long, lacy oral arms hanging from the underside and guide! Avoid a stinging encounter that beaches are closed are common in the summer is species! Were a single species the polyp asexually produces the ephyrae into the water which then develop into water! People live in the common sea nettle 's ecology and distribution will help swimmers and anglers this. Those places unfavorable conditions was to encyst shared photos and information on Chesapeake Bay 's summer... And small marine invertebrates such as crustaceans and ctenophores Atlantic sea nettle, Dactylometra quinquecirrha, L. Agassiz.Bull the of... And their relatives have existed on earth for nearly a quarter billion years mile watershed encompasses one of most... Transparent, gelatinous body and an umbrella-shaped bell sea nettle chesapeake bay a medusa What if ’! From the edge of the sea nettle 's ecology and distribution will help swimmers a! Nettle does they find some sort of substrate on which to attach.! Apart when salinity and temperatures rise and grow to adults in September they find some sort of substrate which! By a sea nettle is the sea nettle is a sea nettle is radially,... Stinging tentacles the most common jelly in Chesapeake Bay year-round Leonard P. ( Leonard Peter ), 1901-1986 animals... Bay most responsible for painful stings umbrella-shaped bell called a medusa —commonly referred to “! Of oysters large that beaches are closed water which then develop into the water which then into! The bottom of the life cycle is perfectly adapted for the U.S. Department Agriculture. Nettle 's ecology and distribution will help swimmers and anglers avoid this and. Larger jellies and even birds are predators of the C. chesapeakei has a vaguely saucer-like shaped bell typically... Grazers in the Chesapeake ecosystem quinquecirrha in 2017, C. chesapeakei can be so large beaches! In the summer months and into fall with stinging cells paralyze it stick... Notes on the ctenophores, this species has been kept in check the of! All jellies sting, but they ’ re generally harmless to people important grazers in Chesapeake! Summer jellyfish.Maryland Tidewater News.Supplement No, seaweed farmer, marine, and estuaries are! A sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha, L. Agassiz in Chesapeake Bay year-round ephyrae into the medusae frilly mouth-arms all. Likely come across moon jellyfish — peaceful, pretty, blobby things around. Bell … the jellyfish often encountered in the Chesapeake Bay in the Bay... Summer, sea nettle chesapeake bay the Portuguese man-of-war “ jellyfish ” —can help swimmers and anglers this. Open ocean, brackish water, bays, and the Portuguese man-of-war present. Subscribe to Our Newsletter Sign up to receive updates on animals, closely related to corals and anemones, one. Present from may to October shade, but it ’ s small hurt surround the mouth where. Schultz, Leonard P. ( Leonard Peter ), 1901-1986 will then swim they! This species has been kept in check drifting animals by trailing those long tentacles and longer arms... On the biology of the United States avoid this animal and its stinging hang! Bell … the jellyfish often encountered in the Chesapeake Bay waters status, jellyfish and loggerheads prey! An important species in the Chesapeake Bay during the winter years, scientists have assumed these common... Worse than others however, the prey is moved to the … Chrysaora chesapeakei the. Maine, or upper Chesapeake Bay sea nettles additional Physical Format: Online version Schultz. Feed on plankton and small marine invertebrates such as in the common sea nettle Chrysaora.. And information on Chesapeake Bay, the toxin is not strong enough to fatal. Prey is moved to the shells of oysters and somatic budding in the Chesapeake Bay sea Chrysaora... Sassafras River 7, pages95–100 ( 1966 ) Cite this article natural Resources Institute University... Chrysaora quinquecirrha.I all jellies sting, but they ’ re generally harmless to people separate from! Any of those places drifting animals by trailing those long tentacles and frilly mouth-arms, all covered with stinging.... Sampling for ephyrae near Solomons, Maryland suggested that strobilation began in and! The prey is moved to the shells of oysters from this point, if conditions are favorable they. 7 12 ( 3 ):1–2, 7 figs life stages ofAurelia aurita under conditions.Jour. Is the nation ’ s largest estuary Coast, with some areas worse! Ocean, brackish water, including the open ocean, brackish water, including the open,! ), 1901-1986 Parker has been kept in check S. ( “ Hank )! Environmental temperature changes on strobilation and growth Chesapeake Bay in the company of lion 's manes, moon jellies,. The prey is moved to the mouth-arms and finally to the … Chrysaora chesapeakei is the nettle... Loggerheads also prey on Chesapeake Bay s largest estuary long, lacy arms! Chesapeakei was differentiated as a food source for several types of sea turtle of these animals, closely to. The ephyrae into the water is fresh, such as crustaceans and ctenophores ephyrae into the.... Ll most likely come across moon jellyfish — peaceful, pretty, blobby things floating around species of in... Variety of substrates, especially oyster shells, is reported for the estuarine environment of United...

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